Footnotes in TeX
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The format for footnotes is simple:

Here is the sentence you are writing.\footnote{And here is your footnote.}

To make it easier to read, I like to put the footnote on a separate line:

Here is the sentence you are writing.%
    \footnote{And here is your footnote.}

The percent % ensures that there is not an extra space between the end of the sentence and the footnote number.

Details

\footnote[number]{text}

The \footnote command places the text at the bottom of the page where it is inserted and places an autonumbered number in superscript before the text of the footnote. The optional argument, number, is used to change the default footnote number. Remember that the footnotes are automatically numbered and so the numbers don't need to be changed.
\footnotemark

The \footnotemark command puts the footnote number in the text. This command can be used in inner paragraph mode. The text of the footnote is supplied by the \footnotetext command.

This command can be used to produce several consecutive footnote markers referring to the same footnote by using
\footnotemark[\value{footnote}] after the first \footnote command.

\footnotetext[number]{text}

The \footnotetext command produces the text to be placed at the bottom of the page. This command can come anywhere after the \footnotemark command. The \footnotetext command must appear in outer paragraph mode.

The optional argument, number, is used to change the default footnote number.

References

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